What Is Embedded System Software
Embedded software has become an essential part of human life. Although, they are programmed to work with very little or no human intervention. Factors like the low price, simplified size, and basic nature has made them very prominent and extremely popular.
Embedded software is an expert programming application software, written to monitor machines or instruments which are not fully regarded as PCs, it is commonly referred to as embedded systems. It is embedded or installed into a device called the ROM or Flash and runs out of the device.
It is exclusively written for particular hardware and typically requires computing and memory due to the limited computer resources of the system. This term is commonly used interchangeably with firmware and runs for the specific hardware with time and memory constraints
Embedded systems application instructions are termed firmware or embedded applications and are contained in reading-only or flash memory chips.
Embedded software plays a vital role in today’s world. It is the perfect blend of hardware and software that fulfils user satisfaction.
Components Of Embedded Software
The embedded software systems components are divided into
- Software components
- Hardware components
1. Power supply
The power supply is the main component of the embedded system to supply power to the built-in system circuit. A battery or wall charger can be used as the source of power supply. The embedded device normally needs 5 Volts or can be between 1.8 and 3.3. Volts for lower power. The power supply is chosen as per the application requirements’, it should be smooth and effective.
The processor is the brainstem of the embedded system, it decides the performance of the system, it acts as a multi-controller. Multiple processors are available in the market which can be chosen based on the requirements. The processor is available in 8-bit, 16-bit, and a 32-bit. The smaller the bit the smaller the application. The higher the bit the larger applications are used in the embedded system.
3. Time counter
There is often a delay requirement in some implementations that is appropriate for the application to have. For instance, a certain delay is necessary for LED display so that LEDs can continue blink. Timer and counter can be used for this purpose, Using the crystal oscillator and the device frequency, a delay period may be generatedas per requirements.
Generally, there are two types of RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read-only memory) which are commonly available. Since the embedded system uses various microcontrollers, the memory is present on its own. RAM is a volatile memory the data will be saved temporarily and can be lost when the system is turned off. ROM is also known as code memory; it is used for storage of program and can fetch code from the ROM memory when you turn on the system.
The assembler is used as the programming language. This assembly language program is converted into the HEX code in order to process it further. Besides hardware called programmer is used to write the chip.
An emulator is a software tool that is used to function the guest system or the host system. It can control all the components and is used in debugging the code and other issues.
A compiler is a software instrument that is used to convert the programming language into target codes that the machine can recognize and run functions on the targeted system. The compiler is used supposedly for the conversion of high-level languages into low-level languages such as programming code, mounting language, or object code.
Characteristics Of Embedded Software
- Embedded systems are task-specific, typically designed to meet real-time constraints. They perform the specific/ same task over and over to generate output.
- An Embedded system is developed to perform a task within a certain time frame.
- Limited resource- energy, space, memory, processor and are less expensive.
- They are programmed to work with minimal or no human intervention.
- Embedded system cannot be altered or upgraded,Thus the reliability and stability have to have a highrate, they tend to function for a long period without any issues or difficulties.
- The hardware is used for the purpose of security and performance, the software is used for the accessibility of the features.
Types Of Embedded System
1. Real-Time Embedded Systems
Real-time systems give quick responses in a particular situation. They are used in industrial, medical, and military applications. This device is seen as a savior in time where a mission must be performed on time or where a project deadline to be met.
computer system monitors the external environment and is connected by sensors or any other output/input interfaces. We may either statically or dynamically plan the output. There are two types of embedded systems they arethe soft and hard embedded system.
2. Stand-Alone Embedded Systems
This type of integrated system does not need a host system such as a computer or a processor. As the names state it is an independent system that runs alone without depending on the host system and shows data on the attached device and performs appropriate device adjustments.
The processing is done by the ports, the input data is collected from ports as analog or digital signals. The outcome is shown by a connected computer after accurate measurement and conversion. This system offers flexibility and consistency.
3. Networked Embedded Systems
Networked embedded systems are connected to a wired or wireless network that can supply a connected device with output. The network in this system is either LAN or WAN.
Can connect across the network through embedded web servers.This division is the fastest rising in the embedded systems due to its flexibility and connectivity.
4. Mobile Embedded Systems
All the portable devices operating under the embedded system are called a mobile embedded system. Although, there is a limitation of memory and functionality they are small and convenient to use as they require minimal resources.
Applications Of Embedded Software
The embedded application program is permanently installed in a range of devices to perform a certain set of functions.
Embedded software is used in a wide range of applications in various fields including:
- Telecommunication – Router, satellite phones
- Automobiles – Anti-lock brakes, control for air conditioner,
- Aerospace – GPS
- Consumer Electronics – camera, television, game consoles(x-box), printers
- Household Appliances- refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioners
- Banking – Teller machines
- Medical – MRI, ECG
- Offices– Elevators
- Automatic toll systems
- Power Suppliers.etc
Advantages Of Embedded Software
- Highly stable and reliable
- Tailored for a specific task
- Use fewer resources
- Small in size
Disadvantages Of Embedded Software
- Once installed, cannot be modified or upgraded
- Difficult to get backup for embedded files
- Complicated to transfer data from one system to another
- Limited hardware
Embedded systems company is well known for their simplicity and system stability. we cannot picture the real world without embedded software design. Understanding the categories allows one to gain deeper insight into the world’s embedded systems and real-time applications.